Rabu, 10 Agustus 2011

contoh interaksi obat

1.       Kalsium, magnesium, aluminium dan zat besi dapat bereaksi dengan beberapa obat tertentu, misalnya antibiotika tetrasikiklin dan turunan fluoroquinolon seperti ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, dan trovafloxacin, membentuk senyawa yang sukar diabsorbsi atau diserap oleh tubuh. Satu penelitian mengungkapkan bahwa penurunan absorbsi antibiotika karena drug interaction dengan mineral-mineral tersebut dapat mencapai 50 – 75 %.

2.        Antibiotika rifampicin dapat mengurangi efektivitas dari berbagai pil kontrasepsi. Kombinasi rifampicin-pil KB ini juga dapat meningkatkan resiko terjadinya pendarahan.

3.        Antihistamin sering diberikan dalam obat flu atau obat batuk. Kombinasi antihistamin dengan obat-obat penenang atau obat-obat yang berkerja menekan system syaraf pusat seperti luminal dan diazepam harus dihindari, sebab kombinasi ini dapat mengadakan potensiasi, sehingga dapat terjadi penekanan system syaraf pusat secara berlebihan.

4.        Cephalosforin dan penicillin
Konsumsi antibiotik pada saat perut kosong untuk mempercepat absorbsi.

5.       Eritromisin
Jangan di konsumsi bersama dengan jus buah-buahan atau grape fruit yang dapat menurunkan efektifitas obat.

6.       Flukonazol, Ketokonazol, Itrakonazol, Griseofulvin
Hindari makanan atau minuman yang mengandung susu, keju, yoghurt, es krim atau antasida.Untuk alcohol dapat menyebabkan efek samping berupa mual, , keram perut, muntah, sakit kepala dan kemerahan dengan panas di muka.

7.      Tetrasiklin
Produk susu dapat mengurangi efektivitas obat, dan juga menurunkan absorbsi vit. C.

8.        Dilantin, Fenobarbital
Meningkatkan resiko anemia dan masalah yang berhubungan dengan syaraf karena defisiensi folat dan vit B lainnya.

9.        Pseudoefedrin
Hindari mengkonsumsi kafein karena dapat meningkatkan rasa cemas dan gelisah.

10.     Theophyllin
Hindari mengkonsumsi kafein karena dapat menyebabkan peningkatan toksisitas obat.

11.      Simetidin, Famotidin dan Sukralfat
Hindari makanan berprotein tinggi, kaffein dan makanan lain yang dapat meningkatkan keasaman lambung.

12.      Fluvastatin, Lovastatin, Pravastatin,
Hindari minum alcohol karena dapat meningkatkan resiko kerusakan hati.
Hindari minun lovastatin dan simvastatin bersama jus grapefruit karena dapat meningkatkan terjadinya efek samping akibat terjadinya peningkatan kadar obat dalam tubuh.

13.      Digitalis
Hindari mengkonsumsi dengan susu dan makanan tinggi serat karena menurunkan absorsbi dan meningkatkan kehilangan kalium.

14.      Norit sering dipakai untuk mengurangi kembung dan diare. Norit ini bersifat menyerap racun dan zat-zat lainnya di lambung. Sifat ini sebenarnya yang dipakai untuk mengurangi kembung dan diare. Namun, norit menyerap zat-zat di lambung hampir tidak pilih bulu sehingga obat-obat yang anda minum dalam waktu bersamaan atau dalam rentang waktu 3-5 jam sekitar waktu makan norit juga akan ikut diserap oleh norit. Akibatnya penyerapan obat oleh tubuh justru berkurang sehingga efek atau khasiat obat yang anda minum tersebut akan berkurang, dan mungkin efek pengobatan tidak akan tercapai.

15.      MAO Inhibitor
Makanan dengan kadar tyramin yang tinggi seperti daging yang diproses, bir dan anggur dapat menyebabkan krisis hipertensi.

english speech

        Ladies and gentleman,  let us pray to the Almighty Allah swt who has given us his blessings and grace in this room. And I would like to thank to the more honorable teachers and seniors, and also for my  beloved friends who have given me an opportunity to stand here. First of all, I would like to introduce myself, my name is………..
        Ladies and gentleman, today I will give a speech about “importance of reading books”. Why do I take this title? Because, in this century, with all of advanced technologies. I am worried if book has been ignored by us. So, let me open up your mind about how importance reading books for us?
        When technology was not so much forward that it created some milestones in the form of computer and television, at that time of the century people used to read books as their primary leisure activity. But the times have changed  and people today have lost their innate passion for reading. But this does not mean that one should neglect the books completely. Recent studies have proven that at least half hours of reading a day keeps a person abreast with varied styles of writing and improves the vocabulary.
        As compared to other means of entertainment that includes listening to music, playing games and watching television, reading books is the most productive one as one improves vocabulary and improves word power. Additionally scientific researches have proved that children and teenagers who love reading have comparatively higher IQ level as compared to those who watch television. Moreover, they are dexterous, creative and do better in school and education and therefore teachers recommend parents to inculcate the benefits of reading in their kids right from the time when they are young.
        It is known that reading increases mental development and stimulates the muscles of eyes there by improving concentration and observation ability. Not only this, reading is one of a kind activity that involves higher concentration and also improves the conversational or communication skills of the readers. Reading enables you to learn new found words and phrases that can be used in day to day conversations and this habit becomes a healthy addiction so that one gathers their own information banks right in their minds.
        Reading books that interest you expose you to more and more information which facilitates one to come up with innovative and creative ideas. All this improves your reasoning skills and develops your capabilities to understand various objectives and their possible solutions at once.
Reading books has many benefits both mentally and morally. your mind will be active and engaged into old age, and reading can help you forget the problems in your life, and get you captivated by the adventures of someone else. Reading is a fun and great way to leave the stresses of your life and just unwind.
Did you know that reading can keep your mind active and engaged well into old age?
Okay, for the example.. there is a woman who was a resident at a local nursing home. She was 100 years old and she reads at least one book a week. And she was bright, intelligent and fun to talk with. She thought read helps her to keep up with what’s going on in the world. And also she said that “"When I go somewhere, I have to go in a wheelchair now. But when I read, I can go anywhere, anytime I want. And no one has to help me!"
Reading has other benefits, as well.
Reading also sets a good example for younger generations.
If  the opportunity presents itself, I urge you to take the time to read. Everyone will benefit. You. Our society. And  the world as a whole.
Okay, that’s all that I can deliver to you. I hope it will be useful for you and not only say “yes, I will” but do it. So, we can keep reading for our media that help us to see the world, not just for entertainer. Happy reading guys. Wass.

daftar alat-alat kimia

Ini adalah daftar alat-alat kimia yang sering digunakan dalam laboratorium. Untuk mendapatkannya anda dapat  mendownload file MWord tersebut. Sekian dan selamat mencoba, semoga bermanfaat.